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In doing so, I have derived help from Dilthey's Die Jugendgeschichte Hegels (in Gesamtnelte Schriften, Vol. The Protes- tant church is viewed as a fresh attempt at a purely moral religion, purged of all positive elements.
IV [Leipzig and Berlin, 1925]); from Hacring's Hegel, sein Wollen und sein Werk, Volume I (Leipzig and Berlin, 1929); and from my friend, Professor Richard Kroner, who read my translations in manuscript. "Great men have claimed that the fundamental meaning of 'Protestant' is a man or a church which has not bound itself to certain unalterable standards of faith but which protests against all authority in matters of belief." 7 II.
He solved for me many problems in translation and exegesis and made some valuable sug- gestions, but the final responsibility for any blemishes that remain is mine. YEARS OF DISCOVERY In 1796 Hegel moved from Bern to Frankfort, where he spent the most fruitful years of his spiritual growth.
In reading these essays, it is essential to take account of their dates. His work of this period shows an abrupt change in his intellectual and philosophic views, in his style and cast of mind, in his whole personality.
It is for this reason that his speech On Classical Studies, delivered in 1809, has been included in this volume as an appendix. How the Teaching of Jesus Came To Be Interpreted in a Positive Sense 85 1 6. The Greeks were the masters of their own inner and outer life.
The Positivity of the Christian Religion, The Spirit of Christianity, and the Fragment of a System, all now translated for the first time, 1 were left in manuscript at Hegel's death and remained unpublished (except for fragments in Rosenkranz's Life of Hegel and Haym's book on Hegel and His Time) until 1907. The Disciples Contrasted with the Pupils of Socrates 82 12. What Is Applicable in a Small Society Is Unjust in a State 86 17. That is why they developed neither theological systems nor ec- clesiastic institutions.
So far as I know, the only one of Hegel's early theological writings which has previously been translated into any language is his "Life of Jesus." Of this, there is a French translation, with an introduction, by D. Yet it is certainly a powerful and shrewd piece of work; and, whatever theologians may think of it, philosophers will be interested to find in it Hegel's first criticisms of Kant's ethics, the germ (in iv) of the later dialectic, and the clue to several hard passages in The Phenomenology of Mind. This is the tragic ori- gin of the Christian church.
The amount of annotation has had to be limited, and, instead of providing the numerous historical notes which might have been appended to The Positivity of the Christian Religion, I have thought it better to use most of the space at my disposal in an attempt to un- ravel some of the perplexities in The Spirit of Christianity. Obviously, Hegel was fighting especially against the Roman Catholic church and took his examples from its history.
The Spirit of Christianity is much more carefully elaborated. While Jesus aimed at a purely moral religion and fought against superstition and positivity, he could not help generating a church by positive means.In addition to the omissions men- tioned above, I have omitted a series of fragments to which Nohl gave the general title "National Religion and Christianity" and an essay on the "Life of Jesus." These have not seemed worth translation the fragments because they are too fragmentary and are concerned in the main with questions treated more systemati- cally and maturely in the essays which I have translated, the "Life of Jesus" because it is little more than a forced attempt to depict Jesus as a teacher of what is in substance Kant's ethics. The Greek was a free man, wont to live in accordance with his own views and to enjoy his political liber- ties.Throughout his life, and not least in his early period when he was PREFATORY NOTE mainly preoccupied with theological problems, Hegel was strongly influenced by the civilization of Greece and Rome. The Resurrection and the Commands Given There- after 83 15. His imagination was as free as his political status.JUN 1963 JUL21 1981 ON CHRISTIANITY Early Theological Writings b Friedrich Hegel TRANSLATED BY T. KNOX WITH AN INTRODUCTION, AND FRAGMENTS TRANSLATED BY RICHARD KRONER HARPER TORCHBOOKS T THE CLOISTER LIBRARY HARPER & BROTHERS, NEW YORK ON CHRISTIANITY: Early Theological Writings Copyright 1948 by The University of Chicago Printed in the United States of America This book was originally published in 1948 by the University of Chicago Press under the title EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS and is here reprinted by arrangement. With the exception of the speech On Classical Studies, the translations have been made from Herman Noh Fs Hegels theologische Jugendschriften (Tubingen, 1907) ; the page num- bers of that edition have been inserted in parentheses for the con- venience of readers who wish to refer to the original German. Are there perhaps some incidents in the life of Jesus which forced him to express the law of reason in a form that deviated from reason and thereby became "positive"? A religion is a historical reality; as such, it cannot be as abstract and definite as the law of reason.With the exception of On Classical Studies, the Hegel texts have been translated from Hegels theologische Jugend- schriften, edited by Herman Nohl and published by J. Nohl printed in footnotes a number of passages which Hegel had written and then deleted; these, along with most of the drafts and fragments printed in Nohl's appendixes, have been omitted from the translation, although a few of them have been used in the ex- planatory notes. True and pure religion is rational and moral; the Christian religion is ecclesiastical and encumbered with creeds, statutes, rites, rules, and dogmas with all the ele- ments of Judaism from which Jesus was trying to free religion. In this sense Greek religion was as positive as Judaism or Christianity.